If the salinity(含盐量) of ocean waters is analyzed, it is found to vary only slightly from place to place.Nevertheless, some of these small changes are important. There are three basic processes that cause a change in oceanic salinity. One of these is the subtraction of water from the ocean by means of evaporation--conversion of liquid water to water vapor. In this manner, the salinity is increased, since the salts staybehind. If this is carried to the extreme, of course, white crystals of salt would be left behind.
The opposite of evaporation is precipitation(降水), such as rain, by which water is added to the ocean. Here the ocean is being diluted(稀释) so that the salinity is decreased. This may occur in areas of high rainfall or in coastal regions where rivers flow into the ocean. Thus salinity may be increased by the subtraction of water by evaporation, or decreased by the addition of fresh water by precipitation or runoff(形成地表水部分的降水).
Normally, in tropical regions where the sun is very strong, the ocean salinity is somewhat higher than it is in other parts of the world where there is not as much evaporation. Similarly, in coastal regions whererivers dilute the sea, salinity is somewhat lower than in other oceanic areas.
A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When seawater is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. In this manner, seawater directly beneath freshly formed sea ice has a higher salinity than it did before the ice appeared. Of course, when this ice melts, it will tend to decrease the salinity of the surrounding water.
In the Weddell Sea, off Antarctica, the densest water in the oceans is formed as a result of this freezingprocess, which increases the salinity of cold water. This heavy water sinks and is found in the deeper portions of the oceans of the world.
Choose correct answers to the question:
1.The best title of the passage can be “_____”.
A.Typical Oceans and Their Respective Features
B.The Causes of the Changes in Salinity of Ocean Water
C.Different Oceans Have Different Salinity
D.The Precipitation and Evaporation of Oceans
2.Which of the following processes will increase salinity of ocean waters?
3.According to this passage, the sea _ is likely to have the lowest salinity.
A. in tropical areas
B. off Antarctica
C. of high rainfall
D. with abundant
4.The Weddell Sea _____.
A.is a good example of increased salinity in freezing sea water
B.is much larger in area than the Arctic oceans
C.has a much lower salinity now than ever
D.has the denser water in its upper parts
5.Coastal regions are mentioned as cases where _____.
A.sea water is less salty because fresh water joins in
B.rivers carry industrial exhaust into sea
C.sea ice tends to melt more quickly than in the center of oceans
D. heavy water sinks to the deeper portions of the oceans
2.[A] 亊实细节题。只要明白第1段第5句中的in this manner是指第4句中的evaporation,不难做出正确选择。选项B、C会使含盐量减少,很容易排除。具体的反证分别出现在第2段首句、第3段尾句和第4段首句。
5.[A] 推理判断题。coastal regions字眼在文章中提到两遍，分别在第2段第3句及第3段最后一句。只要能够迅速査找到任何一处均可做出正确判断为A。B和C无原文支持;D张冠李戴，原文提及D内容涉及的是Weddell Sea,而非coastal regions。
Although many of us may feel air-conditioners bring relief from hot, humid or polluted outside air, they pose many potential health hazards. Much research has looked at how the movement of air inside a closed environment---such as an office building---can spread disease or expose people in the building to harmful chemicals.
One of the more widely publicized dangers is that of Legionnaire’s disease, which was first recognized inthe 1970s. This was found to have affected people in buildings with air-conditioning systems in which warmair pumped out of the system’ cooling towers was somehow sucked back into the air intake (通风口),in mostcases due to poor design. The warm air, filled with bacteria,was combined with cooled, conditioned air andwas then circulated around various parts of the building. Studies showed that even people outside such buildings were at risk if they walked past air exhaust pipes.